what is emesis?
Emesis is an involuntary, forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth. Sometimes through the nose. It is also called vomiting, throwing up, or puking.
Emesis occurs due to the activation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone located in the medulla oblongata.
Nausea is the sick feeling of urge to vomit, which may lead to vomiting or not. Vomiting is where you throw up.
WHAT CAUSES NAUSEA AND VOMITING :
Nausea and vomiting are common symptoms that are due to various causes. These may occur in adults, and children but are yet more common in pregnant women and patients receiving cancer treatment.
It is common due to pain from an injury or illness and the first trimester of pregnancy.
Other common causes: Motion sickness, emotional stress, indigestion, food poisoning, viruses, and toxic chemical exposure.
Certain odors, gallbladder diseases, pancreatitis, Crohn’s disease, heart attack, sepsis, and eating disorders.
In adults, it is usually due to food poisoning or viral infections. It also may be due to an illness that causes high fever.
In children, it is due to virus, food poisoning, overeating or feeding, cough, or illness with fever.
Severe conditions resulting in nausea and vomiting are concussions, encephalitis, meningitis, intestinal blocks, appendicitis, migraine, and brain tumors.
MEDICATIONS THAT CAUSE NAUSEA AND VOMITING:
Anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, radiation therapy, and especially due to chemotherapy are hard to cure.
WHEN YOU SHOULD CONSULT A HEALTHCARE PROVIDER :
If nausea and vomiting occur after eating it may be due to a mental disorder or peptic ulcer disease. If one to 8 hours after eating they may be due to food poisoning, but poisoning due to salmonella shows the slow symptoms.
Consult a doctor if nausea persists for more than a week, presence of dehydration, puking blood, past head injury, or infections.
Consult a doctor in case of these symptoms: Lethargy, headache, confusion, abdominal pain, fever more than 101 Fahrenheit, vomiting or puking with diarrhea, puking blood, rapid breathing, or pulse.
In children: fever more than 102 Fahrenheit, dehydration, vomiting, and diarrhea for more than 24hrs, haven’t urinated for 6 hours.
Home remedies for nausea and vomiting:
It can be relieved at home by following these:
- Drink large amounts of clear liquids.
- Eat light foods(like plain bread, banana)
- Avoid fried, greasy, and sweet foods.
- Don’t mix hot and cold foods.
- Avoid brushing after eating.
- Avoid heavy activity after eating.
- Temporarily stop oral medications that may cause nausea and vomiting.
- Avoid solid food until the vomiting episode has passed.
- Take plenty of rest.
- If vomiting and diarrhea continue for more than 24 hours take oral rehydration salts to prevent dehydration.
- Vomiting due to radiation treatment, surgery, anticancer drugs, alcohol, and morphine is treated with extra drug therapy.
- Consult a healthcare provider for prescription or non-prescription medications to control vomiting with pregnancy, motion sickness, and vertigo.
- Medicine for nausea and vomiting will depend on the diagnosis.
MEDICATIONS USED FOR NAUSEA AND VOMITING: If home remedies for nausea and vomiting didn’t work drugs are used.
Antiemetics are the drugs used as medicine for nausea and vomiting.
A few of them include antihistamines like meclizine hydrochloride, dimenhydrinate, diphenhydramine, and promethazine. These are useful to treat nausea and vomiting due to motion sickness, migraine, and vertigo.
Neuroleptics like chlorpromazine, and haloperidol.
Prokinetic agents like domperidone, and metoclopramide.
Histamine receptor antagonists like ondansetron.
These drugs are to be used as per prescription by health care providers. Few medicines like sedatives and muscle relaxants are contraindicated with antihistamines so use only as per the doctor’s advice.
HERBAL ALTERNATIVES :
- Ginger powder or tea
- B-6 vitamin is useful to treat morning sickness in pregnancy and in general it is useful to reduce nausea.
Persistent vomiting can cause dehydration and malnutrition. Dehydration is especially dangerous in children because they may not be able to tell their symptoms. Older adults are at risk of dehydration as they have a lower volume of water in their bodies than younger people.
Green or yellow vomit may be due to bile reflux, food poison, and intestinal obstruction.
PREVENTION OF NAUSEA AND VOMITING :
- Eat slowly.
- Take foods that are at cold or room temperature.
- Drink liquids between meals, like a 6 to 8-ounce glass of water.
- Activity may worsen nausea and vomiting. Rest while keeping head 12 inches above feet.
FOR CHILDREN :
- Treat cough, and fever with over-the-counter or prescription medication.
- Motion sickness can be avoided by seating the child such that they face the front window shield.
- Limit sweet snacks.
- Don’t let them eat and play at the same time.
- Make them rest during snack time.